Torres Strait Beche-de-mer Fishery

Map showing the area of the Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer Fishery (2006)


Ecological Risk Assessment for BDM Fishery

Read the final Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) report for the Torres Strait Beche-de-mer Fishery.


Stock survey of sea cucumbers in East Torres Strait

Find the Final report from CSIRO.


Outcomes of the black teatfish industry workshop held on Mer on 8-10 February 2021

The black teatfish industry workshop was held for fishers from the Kemer Kemer Meriam and Kulkalgal Nations to further discuss the timing for the proposed reopening of black teatfish in 2021, explain the requirements for daily catch landing and reporting that will apply to the reopening and provide the opportunity for participants to discuss cultural protocols. The workshop was Chaired and facilitated by PZJA HCWG Traditional Inhabitant (TI) member Mr Michael Passi with assistance from PZJA HCWG Traditional Inhabitant (TI) member and Malu Lamar Chairperson Mr Maluwap Nona with assistance from PZJA Finfish Working Group TI member Mr Rocky Stephen and AFMA.

Read the black teatfish industry workshop outcomes.

View the Black teatfish industry workshop presentation.

View the CSIRO sea cucumber survey results February 2021.

Black teatfish trial opening checklists

Download the checklist for fishers.

Download the checklist for fish receivers.

Trial opening for black teatfish starting 30 April 2021

On 27 August 2020, the PZJA agreed to a trial reopening of the fishery for black teatfish subject to a 20 tonne Total Allowable Catch (TAC) and requirement of daily landing and daily reporting of catch through the mandatory fish receiver system.

Fishing for black teatfish will commence on 30 April 2021 and a letter has been sent to Beche-de-mer Fishery Traditional Inhabitant Boat (TIB) licence holders and Torres Strait Fish Receiver licence holders, notifying them of variations of their licence conditions to enable the black teatfish trial opening.

Download a copy of the letter sent to TIB licence holders.

Download a copy of the letter sent to Torres Strait Fish Receivers.

Update on fishing for black and white teatfish in the Torres Strait

4 September 2020

Details regarding the update on black and white teatfish in the Torres Strait Beche-de-mer fishery are provided in a letter to all BDM licence holders issued on 4 September 2020.

This includes information on:

  • CITES Appendix II listing and PZJA decision on a 20 tonne black teatfish opening
  • CITES Appendix II listing of black and white teatfish
  • PZJA decision to convene a black teatfish opening

Download a copy of the letter sent to all Torres Strait BDM licence holders or find more information on the PZJA website notices and announcements page.

About the Torres Strait Beche-de-mer Fishery

The Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer Fishery is an important commercial fishery to Torres Strait Islanders. The fishery was based primarily on sandfish (Holothuria scabra) in the past, however harvesting of this species has been discontinued.

Until January 2003 fishing focused on surf redfish (Actinopyga mauritiana), black teatfish (Holothuria whitmaei), white teatfish (Holothuria fuscogilva) and to a lesser extent, a couple of lower value species. In January the quota for surf redfish and black teatfish was set at zero tonnes for both species, effectively closing the fishery for these two species.

Fishing for bêche-de-mer in Torres Strait is mainly by free diving from dinghies crewed by 2-3 fishers or by hand collection along reefs at low tide. Once collected, the animal is gutted, graded, cleaned, boiled, smoked and dried. This is a labour intensive process usually carried out on processing vessels or at shore based facilities.

Beche-de-mer harvest strategy adopted by PZJA

The Beche-de-mer Harvest Strategy (BDM HS) was adopted by the PZJA at their meeting on 19 November 2019. Read more on the announcement.

Download a copy of the Torres Strait Beche-de-mer Harvest Strategy 2019.

Updated Beche-de-mer species guide

The updated guide now includes information on BDM breeding season, species distributions and the ecological role of sea cucumbers.

Download the Torres Strait Beche-de-mer (Sea cucumber) species ID guide.

Latest Beche-de-mer Catch Watch Report

View the latest Beche-de-mer Fishery Catch Watch Report.

Consultation outcomes on draft Beche-de-mer Harvest Strategy 

The Protected Zone Joint Authority (PZJA) agreed at its meeting on 1 April 2019 to release the draft harvest strategy for the Torres Strait Protected Zone Beche-de-mer (BDM) Fishery for public comment. The period for submissions closed on 31 May 2019. To facilitate consultation on the draft harvest strategy, AFMA undertook a round of community visits across the Torres Strait and Northern Peninsula Area. A copy of the report from the community visits is below.

Report from Torres Strait Community Visits, April - May 2019 (PDF)

Next Steps

The PZJA Hand Collectables Working Group will consider the consultation outcomes on the draft BDM harvest strategy at their meeting (HCWG15) on Thursday Island 1-2 August 2019. The harvest strategy will then be considered by the PZJA for approval by the start of the BDM season on 1 January 2020.

A copy of the draft harvest strategy together with frequently asked questions (FAQs) about harvest strategies and an overview of the BDM harvest strategy are below. 

Further copies of these documents may also be obtained by contacting the AFMA Torres Strait Office on 07 4069 1990 or by email to FisheriesTI [at]

Condition of the fishery

Bêche-de-mer are especially susceptible to overfishing because they are large, easily seen and collected and do not require sophisticated fishing techniques. As a result the Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer Fishery is subject to a suite of input and output controls aimed at preventing overfishing but also allowing Islanders to benefit from the use of bêche-de-mer stocks.

Sandfish has been subject to excessive levels of fishing effort during the early 1990's and 1995 in particular. It is a high value species occurring in relatively shallow waters and as a result is vulnerable to over-harvesting.

Following concerns of serious resource depletion and overexploitation of sandfish stocks on Warrior Reef, four fishery independent surveys were commissioned to assess the level of reduction in sandfish abundance in 1995/1996, 1998, 2000 and 2002.

The collection of sandfish, which was harvested primarily for export, has been prohibited since early 1998 following recommendations from CSIRO researchers undertaking the surveys that the remaining stock on Warrior Reef was approximately 80% less than in November 1995.

In 1995, the status of sandfish stocks were considered overexploited, therefore the subsequent reduction indicated a serious depletion. The survey also led to the introduction of severe management measures. Further fishing pressure on sandfish may have led to a total collapse of the stock and a continued closure was recognised as the only feasible strategy for rehabilitation.

A third survey of the sandfish population on Warrior Reef was undertaken by CSIRO in January 2000. The work revealed that sandfish stocks are still severely depleted with only a very slight recovery having taken place since the extremely low abundance recorded in 1998.

The most recent (2002) survey found that there was a modest recovery of the stock from 2000 levels, primarily on the southern parts of the reef, however overall the abundance was still only about 40 percent of the 1995 level. Based on the surveys there was no recommendation for the PZJA to open the sandfish to exploitation.

Based on the 2002 survey undertaken by CSIRO that also took in the eastern reefs of Torres Strait the PZJA was advised that the black teatfish and surf redfish had experienced significant declines in abundance. Based on this advice the PZJA closed the fishery for these species by setting zero TACs for them.

Under the previous management and licensing structure, Islanders from 12 communities harvested bêche-de-mer for commercial purposes, along with one non-Islander licence holder. Following arrangements that placed the fishery under Commonwealth Law 178 Traditional Inhabitant vessels are presently licensed for the fishery in addition to the one non-islander licence holder.

Management objectives:

Objectives adopted for the Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer Fishery are:

  • to provide for the sustainable use of all bêche-de-mer stocks in Torres Strait;
  • develop bêche-de-mer stocks for the benefit of Australian Traditional Inhabitants (as defined by the Torres Strait Treaty); and
  • develop an appropriate long term management strategy for sandfish.

Experience elsewhere in the Pacific indicates recovery of overfished sea cucumber stocks is a lengthy process taking several years.

Management arrangements

In the Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer Fishery, participation is limited to Traditional Inhabitants with the exception of one long-term non-Islander operator who was active in the fishery prior to the introduction of licence limitation in the fishery in late 1995.

Management regulations

Regulations implemented in the fishery include:

  • limiting the method of taking bêche-de-mer to either hand or hand held non-mechanical implement;
  • a ban on the use of hookah or SCUBA gear;
  • limiting dinghies to less than 7 metres in length;
  • limiting the activities of the one non-Islander licensed operator to primarily involve the participation of Islanders in those activities;
  • a competitive Total Allowable Catch (TAC) (measured in wet weight gutted) at 30 June 2003 for the following species:

Total allowable catch limits

Fish species Tonnes
White teatfish (Holothuria fuscogilva) 15
Prickly redfish (Theleonata ananas)   15
Deepwater redfish (Actinopyga echinites) 5

Hairy blackfish (Actinopyga miliaris)


Greenfish (Stichopus chloronatus)


Curryfish species (Stichopus herrmanni, Svastus and S. occellatus)

60 combined TAC (basket)

Black teatfish (Holothuria whitmaei)


Surf redfish (Actinopyga mauritania)


Sandfish (Holothuria scabra)


All other BDM species (inc. those in the families Holothuridae and Stichopidae) 50
Total 190























Minimum size limits

Minimum size limits for mm
Sandfish 180
Lollyfish 150
Black teatfish 250
White teatfish 320
Elephant's trunk fish 240
Prickly redfish 300
Deepwater redfish 200
Surf redfish 220
Black fish 220
Curry fish 310